There’s exactly one well-known story about Hans Rosbaud — although, like its topic, it’s not fairly as well-known because it must be.
This Austrian conductor was asleep at his house in March 1954 when the phone rang. On the road was a producer at Hamburg Radio, a little bit determined. Might Rosbaud come to cowl for the injured Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt, and oversee the premiere of Arnold Schoenberg’s “Moses und Aron,” a gargantuan opera unperformed since being left unfinished in 1932?
Rosbaud had by no means seen the rating. His thoughts seemingly drifted to the Thirties: Again then Schoenberg had advised Rosbaud forebodingly that he had “not imposed in any respect any reserve regarding difficulties of execution” in writing the opera. He clearly assumed nobody would dare carry out it.
When was the premiere scheduled, Rosbaud requested the radio producer, fearfully? In precisely one week.
This was a troublesome prospect, however not the not possible one it could have been for nearly anybody else. “One is sort of pressured to use the phrase genius to Hans Rosbaud’s masterful management of the work,” The New York Instances later reported of the efficiency. Genius sufficient, certainly, that the printed was launched on record in 1957, the yr Rosbaud led the staged premiere of “Moses und Aron” in Zurich — surpassing “even himself,” as a critic wrote.
The recording nonetheless holds up, a hearth coruscating by its lucidity. Had Schoenberg lived to listen to it, he might need repeated the thanks he had supplied Rosbaud in 1931 for a efficiency of his “Variations for Orchestra,” when he wrote in awe at having heard his work carried out “with readability, with love, with design.”
No musician of Rosbaud’s technology did extra to canonize its avant-garde. Igor Stravinsky supplied a letter of advice for “this high-minded musician, this aristocrat amongst conductors.” Paul Hindemith was a classmate and lifelong good friend. Anton Webern was a home visitor.
“When a composer speaks of Rosbaud the conductor,” Pierre Boulez wrote of the person to whom his masterpiece, “Le Marteau Sans Maître,” is devoted, “he’s talking within the first place of a good friend.”
Joan Evans, a musicologist and Rosbaud biographer, has listed 173 premieres that he gave from 1923 till his demise in 1962, the beneficiaries working from Fritz Adam to Bernd Alois Zimmermann by the use of Karl Amadeus Hartmann, Gyorgy Ligeti and Luigi Nono. The Musical Instances of London eulogized him merely as “the best conductor of latest music.”
However this “dream determine” who would “at all times give the longer term the good thing about the doubt,” as Boulez wrote, chafed at his formidable repute.
“I’m not a contemporary music specialist,” Rosbaud advised a German newspaper in 1956. “In Aix-en-Provence I’m characterised as a Mozart professional; in Munich, I’m thought to be a specialist of Bruckner. It’s harmful to categorise musicians on this method.”
Notably so, for Rosbaud’s personal destiny. His public stature has by no means approached the non-public respect by which musicians held him, partly due to his advocacy for music that has by no means actually caught on. Quiet and scholarly, this “grim, Lincolnesque” man, as a author as soon as described him, appeared to be the antithesis of a star maestro. His main positions weren’t with big-name symphonies, however less-prominent radio ensembles. He made few industrial information, excellent although those few were. He had little interest in fame.
Few conductors, then, have extra to realize from a gap of the vaults. Greater than 700 of Rosbaud’s performances have been languishing in archives, most of them at SWR, the successor to Southwest German Radio in Baden-Baden, his inventive house after 1948.
Since 2017, SWR has launched 59 CDs from these tapes, in a challenge that covers Rosbaud’s work in composers from Mozart to Sibelius. A lot stays nonetheless to materialize, not least what must be important containers of Twentieth-century music. However regardless of variable, normally mono sound, what has already emerged is loads to show he was way over his legend. With out query one of the vital necessary conductors of his century, Rosbaud was additionally one of many most interesting.
He noticed his process as primarily to assist composers state their very own case. However not like others who’ve aimed for the same interpretive modesty, Rosbaud’s strategy was by no means medical or didactic. It at all times had at its core that love that moved Schoenberg. His Bruckner had humanity in addition to construction; he took Haydn significantly, early and late alike; his Schoenberg, Berg and Webern weren’t simply intelligible, however blazed with depth.
Claudia Cassidy put her pen on Rosbaud’s typical type in 1962. “Rosbaud gave us a blueprint,” this ordinarily truculent Chicago Tribune critic wrote after listening to him lead Stravinsky’s “Ceremony of Spring.” “Not the sort that lies inert on the drafting desk, however the variety that units skyscrapers hovering, flings bridges into area and sends creativeness spinning into orbit.”
Rosbaud had music in his blood. He was born in Graz, Austria, on July 22, 1895, to Anna Rosbaud, a piano trainer who had taken classes from Clara Schumann. A single mom who died in 1913, Anna by no means advised her 4 kids who their father was; Arnold Kramish, the biographer of Hans’s brother, Paul, traced their paternity to Franz Heinnisser, at one level the choirmaster of the Graz cathedral.
Rising up in a musical household, if a destitute one, Hans performed not less than 4 devices. He attended the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt, and his first appointment as a conductor got here in 1921. He later recalled getting used to “the whistling, ranting and raging” with which audiences would greet his Hindemith, Stravinsky and Schoenberg with the Mainz Symphony in Germany.
Rosbaud’s most important process in Mainz was to run its music faculty, and he continued this instructional strategy to his profession after 1929, as conductor of the Frankfurt Radio Symphony. Rosbaud gave talks on the orchestral devices, writing items like a fughetta for 3 bassoons as illustrations, and he lectured on Wagner earlier than giving act-by-act broadcasts of the “Ring.” Bartok, Stravinsky and different composers got here to carry out; Schoenberg spoke on his “Variations,” with Rosbaud giving examples, and likewise despatched in ideas on “Brahms the Progressive.”
Even earlier than Hitler took energy in 1933, Rosbaud’s tastes have been drawing the eye of what he advised Stravinsky was a “chauvinistic motion.” Pressured to enlist a household good friend in Graz as a faux father to exhibit his Aryan ancestry, Rosbaud discovered his once-lauded assist for a sure strand of recent music now introduced him bother, not least when a disgruntled subordinate reported him to the Gestapo in 1936 for seeing music “in a Jewish sense.” He reassured banished composers that he remained on their facet, and tried, with out success, to discover a job in america. He left Frankfurt in 1937 for Münster.
Rosbaud despised Nazism, and he seemingly knew that Paul, his brother, was spying on the German nuclear program for Britain. Nonetheless, Hans put his talents to work for the Nazis, reconciling himself to that service with small acts of resistance. To Berlin, he appeared sound sufficient to be appointed normal music director of occupied Strasbourg, a metropolis that the Nazis sought to show right into a colony for his or her thought of German artwork, in 1941. However Rosbaud endeared himself to the Alsatians, talking French, defending the musicians and appearing with enough decency that even Charles Munch, the fiercely antifascist Strasbourgian conductor, thought him past reproach.
Regardless of Rosbaud’s work in occupied territory, the American navy rushed to clear him in denazification proceedings. Shorn of any unfortunate ideological associations in both his politics or his aesthetics, he was normal music director in Munich earlier than 1945 was over: a short, frantic tenure that noticed him give Beethoven and Bruckner cycles in bombed-out halls, and reconnect German musical life to its worldwide context, with Schoenberg, Shostakovich and Stravinsky given delight of place.
That work would go on, however not primarily in Munich. A proposal in 1948 from Baden-Baden couldn’t be refused, coming because it did with the chance to think about an ensemble from scratch and to satisfy a particular mandate for brand spanking new music, which after 1950 included the Donaueschingen Competition, a hotbed of the avant-garde. An lively Beethoven Violin Concerto with Ginette Neveu from 1949, in addition to a lacerating Hartmann Second and a brave Messiaen “Turangalîla” shortly after, present that Rosbaud shortly introduced the orchestra to a excessive commonplace.
However he by no means aspired to the ensemble virtuosity of the extra commercially-driven orchestras of the day. His vivacious 1957 account of Haydn’s “London” Symphony with the Berlin Philharmonic is likely to be crisper than his 1952 and 1962 efforts in Baden-Baden, however what issues about all of them is how their heat and drive enliven Haydn’s buildings, with out drawing consideration to themselves.
The thrill of what SWR has unearthed are delicate, not sensational. Those that want grand statements of their Beethoven is likely to be upset, regardless of the grinding insistence of his Fifth Symphony, the liquid move of his Sixth, the effervescence of his Eighth. Those that need bombast of their Tchaikovsky will doubt his unmissable Fifth, so filled with darkish psychological shadows that it’s virtually redolent of Mahler. And in Mahler, Rosbaud’s early advocacy for whom was attribute of a conductor so usually half a beat forward of his time, he comes near ultimate.
“Mr. Rosbaud doesn’t lower it to items or disguise it by ‘interpretation,’” Cassidy wrote of a Mahler Ninth in Chicago in December 1962, in phrases that additionally apply to Rosbaud’s Baden-Baden recording from 1954. “He offers it readability, precision and understanding, which is to make clear it with out blinding its mysteries.”
The Chicago Symphony, the place Rosbaud had lengthy spells as a visitor conductor between 1959 and 1962, considered him to succeed Fritz Reiner as music director. This supplied American recognition for the primary time, and an opportunity to develop a craft honed not simply in Baden-Baden, but additionally in Zurich, the place he held positions with the Tonhalle Orchestra, and in Aix-en-Provence. There he directed the annual summer season pageant from 1948, main operatic Mozart that Virgil Thomson as soon as known as “perfection” in its “animation and orchestral delicacy,” and venturing into Gluck and Rameau.
However Chicago was to not be. Rosbaud had been weakening since kidney surgical procedure a number of years earlier than, and after that Mahler Ninth and a short cease in Baden-Baden, the place he gave a serene farewell with Brahms’s Second, he died on Dec. 29, 1962, close to Lugano, Switzerland. He was 67.