The Big Number: $42.60

But after the union gradually expanded its walkouts, increasing pressure on the three companies, each agreed to a 25 percent raise over the life of the contract.

So did the automakers miscalculate? The deals could be the latest example of how employers across industries appear to have been caught flat-footed by the more assertive tactics of new union leaders, leading to concessions by employers and success for workers.

Jamie Kelter Davis for The New York Times